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   GUNTUR

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NATIONAL INTEGRATION

SECTION 1

INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE

Ques 1. List out the important periods of Indian History? 

Ans  - Relevant details are as under: -

(a)          Harappan Culture.  First urban culture to flourish in India.

(b)          Vedic age. It was the result of the inter- mixing of the Indo - Aryans with the pre-existing inhabitants of India.

(c)          Jainism & Buddhism.  6th century BC to 200 BC. Both religions had lasting impact on life and culture of India.

(d)          Period from 200 BC to 300 AD. This phase is extremely important since the changes that took place in economic and political life, and significant developments in various aspects of culture including religion, art and science and technology.

(e)          4th AD to 8th century  - Classical age of Indian civilization.  The Guptas  built a large kingdom during this period which remained powerful for about a century. In the Deccan and the South, there were two major Kingdoms during this period of the Pallavas and of the Chalukyas.  Some of the finest achievements in various fields of culture-art, architecture, literature, philosophy, science, technology can, however, be dated to this period.

(f)            In spite of the dominant position of Sanskrit in most part of the country. This period marks the beginning of many modern Indian languages as well as distinct scripts in different parts of the country. The period is also important for some of the most significant advances in science and technology. Most of the major works in astronomy, mathematics and medicine belong to this period.

(g)          The medieval period.  8th to 17th century. Creation of large number of states,  Induction of Islam, emergence of Brahmini & Vijaynagram kingdoms in south, Establishment of Sultanate of Delhi, unification of North and South under Mughals like Ashoka earlier, Akbar, the greatest of the Mughal emperors, followed a policy of  sulk- kul (peace with all).

       (h)          The modern period     18th century saw decline of Mughals and colonisation by British began. Freedom struggle, partition and independence of India are important events of this period.

Ques 2.   Why is the period 4th to 8th century called 'classical age' of Indian civilisation?

Ans  - It is due to the following : -

(a)          Guptas remained powerful for almost for one century.

(b)          Pallavas and chaulukyas were major kingdoms of Deccan and south.

      (c)          Some of the finest achievements in various fields of culture-art, architecture,                       literature, philosophy, science, technology are dated to this period.

      (d)          Decline of Buddhism and rise of Brahminical religion.

      (e)          Sanskrit was language of court in major parts of the country and beginning of                        many modern Indian languages.

     (f)            The period is also important for some of the most significant advances in science     and technology. Most of the major works in astronomy, mathematics and medicine                     belong to this period.

Ques 3.   What are various dimensions of Indian culture?

Ans - Various different races have been coming to India and on entering India; they had conflicts with the local inhabitants.  These conflicts affected their respective cultures and through the process of assimilation and synthesis, Indian culture grew all the richer. Various races which came to India are as under     ; -

(a)          Negrito Race.

(b)          Dravidians.

(c)          Aryans.

(d)          Muslims.

(e)          British.

(f)           The present form of administration in India is the outcome of the great influence of the British ideology. The present economic organization, joint stock companies, managing agencies, big factories, production through machines, railways, telegraphs, telephone, aeroplanes and other means of conveyance and communication were brought to India from the west.

 

SECTION 2- RELIGIONS AND CUSTOMS OF INDIA

Ques 1.  What are the major Indian religions and percentage of population?

 Ans - (a)      Hindus           -           83.5 %

           (b)      Muslims         -           10.7 %

              (c )     Christians       -           2.44 %

          (d)       Sikhs              -           1.79 %

              (e)      Buddhists       -           0.74 %

              (f)       Jains               -           0.46 %

              (g)      Others             -           0.37 %

Ques 2.  The customs of India depict very colourful panorama. What are your comments?

 Ans. It is due to the following: -

(a)       India is a multiracial, multilingual civilization with rich cultural heritage and has provided peaceful atmosphere for the development of many religions. Indian culture and customs are influenced by these religions.

(b)       Indian festivals are famous the world over. Most of the festivals are related to the change of weather and crop harvesting since India is an agro based economy. The most famous Indian festivals are Diwali, Holi, Dussehra and Basant Panchami. There are certain festivals which are prevalent in particular regions only like Bihu in Assam, Baishakhi in Punjab etc. 

(c)        There are different customs of Hindu marriage as compared to a Muslim marriage or a Sikh marriage. Similarly there are different customs of celebrations. There are certain religious customs which pertain to particular religion only like Mundan ceremony in Hindus and Naming ceremony in Sikhs. 

(d)       There are certain customs regarding dresses and ornaments of women. These are associated with particular regions which give a very colourful dimension to Indian customs and traditions, similarly all regions have their distinctive ornaments. 

(e)       The customs and traditions of India though varied are binding which ultimately serves as a unifying factor of Secular India.

 

SECTION 3- UNITY IN DIVERSITY

Ques 1. What is the importance of national unity?

Ans - National unity is also essential for social wellbeing, peace and harmony. People can enjoy peace and security, if there is a mutual trust and goodwill among all sections of society. No progress can be made in the field of art & literature, science & cultural advancement and economic well-being, if the disruptive tendencies and divisive forces are present in the country. Nation can play an effective role in the international field if our own house in order.

Ques 2 -    What are the fundamentals of national unity?

Ans  - These are as under : -

      (a)          Language.

(b)          Casteism.

(c)          Education.

(d)          Communalism.

(e)          Regionalism.

Ques 3 -    What is the relevance of NCC in unifying India and what are the important ingredients of national unity?

 Ans  - NCC creates awareness amongst youth about the diverse heritage of our country and fosters national integration despite linguistic, cultural, religious and geographical barriers. It helps cadets to gain experience to live together, co-operate with each other and work in harmony amongst cadets of various states, thus strengthening unity. Important ingredients of national unity are as under: -

(a)          Ethics and social values.

(b)          Cultural and traditional values.

(c)          Discipline and patriotism.

 

SECTION 4- NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE

 

Ques 1.  Define national integration.

Ans - National integration is a positive concept to inculcate feeling of togetherness amongst diverse sections of society. It is not the uniformity of all religions, dress and food habits etc. It means both preservation of diverse cultures and at the same time living, respecting and working in harmony with each other for the overall prosperity of the nation.

Ques 2.  Why is national integration important for progress of any nation?

Ans. It is important for the following: -

            (a)       Maintenance of sovereignty and territorial integrity of the nation.

            (b)       Maintenance of peace and harmony.

            (c )       Growth and development of the nation.

            (d)       Eradication of poverty and illiteracy.

            (e)       Internal security and law and order.

            (f)        Culture and religious development.

            (g)       Economic and industrial growth.

            (h)       Attract foreign investment and increase import and export.

            (j)         Exchange of technological know-how and culture .

            (k)        Dignity and self respect as a nation.

            (l)         Welfare and well-being of the people.

            (m)      Foreign relations and better standing among the nations of the world.

 

SECTION 5

FAMOUS LEADERS OF INDIA

 (Only for JD/JW Cadets)

 

Ques 1.     Mahatma Gandhi, Bhagat Singh, Lal Bahadur Shastri,  Chander Shekhar Azad,  Subash  Chandra Bose, Swami Vivekanand , Jawaharlal Nehru ,  Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Sardar  Vallabh Bhai Patel.

Ans. Study the Precis for complete details

 

SECTION 6

INDIA'S NEIGHBOURS

(Only for JD/JW Cadets)

Ques 1. What are the favourable points in the developing Indo-China relations?

Ans  - These are as under : -

(a)          Neighbours and huge human infrastructure.

(b)          Age old religious & cultural ties with regular exchange of delegations.

(c)          Agriculture with strong industrial base.

(d)          Fastest growing economies.

(e)          Opening of trade routes.

(f)           Nuclear power and emerging space technology.

(g)   Growing relations in the fields of culture, education, economy, science and

Technology.

(h)          Perpetual friendship treaty of Pachsheel based on five principles of peace.

Ques No 2. What are the hurdles in the Indo-china relations?

Ans  - These are as under :  

(a)          Difference of ideology i.e. Democracy vs Communism.

(b)          Persisting border dispute.

(c)          Chinese war of 1962.

(d)          Suppression of Tibetan freedom.

(e)          Increasing nuclear capability and weapons of mass destruction by China.

(f)           Helping Pakistan militarily.

Ques 3. What are the favourable points in the Indo-Nepal relations?

Ans. These are as under: -

(a)          Historical cultural and religious ties.

(b)          Increasing co-operation in the fields of Agriculture, Agro-based industries, tourism,

 processing of cash crops, science and technology.

(c)          Establishment of industrial units with the help of India.

(d)          Construction of Devighat Hydro-electric Project in Nepal during 1985.

Ques 4. What are the favourable points in the Indo-Bhutan relations?

Ans. These are as under: -

(a)          Ties of religion, culture and friendship between people of both countries.

(b)          India is responsible for security and communication in Bhutan.

(c)          Development of education, technical skills and economy of Bhutan.

(d)          Continuous economic, industrial and military aid to Bhutan.

Ques 5. What are the favourable points in the Indo-Myanmar relations?

Ans. These are as under: -

(a)          Strong cultural and ties since time immemorial.

(b)          Common border and perpetual security problems.

(c)          Both countries agreed to check drug trafficking and unlawful activities on the

borders.

(d)          Regular exchange between the dignitaries of both nations to resolve problems of

mutual interest.

Ques 6. What are the hurdles in the Indo-Myanmar relations?

 Ans. These are as under: -

      (a)          Military rule and constant suppression of democracy in Myanmar.

(b)          Dismal poverty & stoppage of international aid.

(c)          Many NE insurgent groups operate from Myanmar.

(d)          Porous border is conduit for supply of drugs to India.

Ques 7. What are the favourable points in the Indo-Bangladesh relations?

 Ans. These are as under: -

      (a)          India helped Bangladesh to achieve independence.

(b)          Financial and technical assistance for development programmes in Bangladesh.

(c)   Indian Army helped people of Bangladesh in their genuine struggle against oppression

and domination by West Pakistan.          

Ques 8. What are the hurdles in the Indo-Bangladesh relations?

Ans. These are as under: -

(a)          Influx of immigration of Bangladeshis into India.

(b)          Shelter to NE insurgent groups in Bangladesh.

(c)          Poor, over-populated and ill-governed nation.

(d)          Increasing influence of fundamentalists in society.

(e)          Increase in Al-Qaeda and ISI backed groups.

Ques 9. What are the favourable points in the Indo-Sri Lankan relations?

 Ans. These are as under: -

(a)          Age old cultural and religious ties.

(b)          Constant co-operation in the spheres of economic, peace and friendship.

(c)          Being close maritime neighbour it is in India's interest that political and social

stability returns to Sri Lanka.

Ques 10. What are the hurdles in the Indo-Pakistan relations?

 Ans. These are as under: -

      (a)          Constant tension & strained relations after partition leading to four wars of 1949,     1965, 1971 and kargil war of 1999.

(b)          Raising Kashmir bogey in international fora repeatedly.

(c)          Fomenting trouble in India in various forms.

(d)          Supporting militant groups from its soil against India.

(e)          Suppression of democracy and military rule in Pakistan.

Ques 11. What are the favourable points in the Indo-Pakistan relations?

 Ans. These are as under: -

      (a)          Same heritage, culture and ancestry.

(b)          Common food habits, strengths and concerns of populace.

(c)          Shared water resources.

(d)          Increasing people to people contacts.

(e)          Increasing confidence building measures.

(f)           Disenchantment of common people with the military and fundamentalists groups.

 

SECTION 7

CONTRIBUTION OF YOUTH FOR NATION BUILDING

Ques 1.   Define role of youth in nation building?

Ans - Youth is the backbone, hope of the future, potent tools of national integration and reckonable force to shape the destiny of the nation. The youth  can play a leading  role  in bringing  together  the  people of different  states  and  religions  with  a view  to integrating  them  emotionally,  culturally and  geographically. 

Ques 2. How can youth contribute individually for nation building?

 Ans  -              (a)       Be good human being by imbibing Oriental value system.

  (b)          Help the friends & colleagues from unprivileged section of society.

(c)          Improve personal talent, innovate and enhance your usefulness for society and Nation.

  (d)          Discourage corruption in every form and manifestation in society.

  (e)          Participate in sports, yoga and improve personal health.

  (f)           Use national/natural resources like, energy in all forms, communication spectrum, water resources etc with due austerity and discourage its misuse by others.

  (g)          Develop secular outlook and tolerance for all sections of society.

  (h)          Extend willing help to civil administration during natural and man made disasters.

  (i)            Learn healthy politics during college days.

Ques 3.    Youth can contribute for nation building at personal level by saying 'no' to what all social evils?

 Ans  -               (a)       Drugs

 (b)       Dowry

  (c)       Illicit sexual relations

  (d)       Antisocial activities in thought and action.

  (e)       Exploitation of underprivileged in society.

  (f)        Use of child labour

  (g)       Unfair means during exams.

                         (h)        Accepting and offering bride in all forms

Ques  4  - Youth can contribute for nation building at personal level by saying ‘yes’ to which all good personal habits?

 Ans   -             (a)       Avoid rash driving.

(b)       Carry driving license and helmet always.

  (c)       Follow road etiquettes and road safety norms explicitly.

  (d)       Don't use mob while driving and no over speeding.

  (e)       Extend willing help during natural and man made disasters.

  (f)         Organise traffic control during accidents.

  (g)        Plant trees on special occasions like birth of daughter, birthday of other Nears and Dears, anniversaries etc and prevent extravaganza by all means.

  (j)         Help and look after aging parents

                 (k)        Groom & nurture your children so that they become responsible citizens     of the nation.

                         (l)            As responsible citizens, employees, entrepreneurs & Govt servants, ensure    punctuality, excellence, simple living and high thinking.  

                     (m)        Help your colleagues from under privileged section of society.

 

SECTION 8- NATION STATE, NATIONAL INTEREST AND OBJECTIVE

(Only for SD/SW Cadets)

Ques  1  - Define nation state.

Ans   - Nation  State  can be defined  as  a  country  which  has  essential  elements of population,  territory, sovereignty and Government.

Ques  2.  What are the national interests of a Nation?

Ans - National interests are as under:-

     (a)       Sovereignty.             Foremost interest of the nation is to be autonomous and    remain independent.

(b)       Integrity.   The nation should be full, indivisible and have a well-defined territory.

(c)        Unity.   The  nation should  be a secular union of  states  with  political power belonging  to  a central confederate authority,  with  united  and  undivided  goals without factional , sectarian  or fanatical prejudices. It should be tolerant towards caste, colour, creed, religion and language of each other.

(d)       Security.   The nation must ensure safety, territorial integrity and protection of the state against external threat or subversion.

Ques  3.  What are the important Directive principles of state Policy?

Ans     (a)       To ensure  and  protect  a social  order  which stands  for  the  welfare  of  the      people.

(b)       Separation of judiciary from the executive.

(c)        Protection of national monuments.

(e)       Protection and improvement in environment, forests and wild life.

(f)        Organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines.

(g)       Improvement of public health.

(h)       Prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs.

(j)         Promotion of educational and economic interests of weaker sections of the people.

(k)        To have uniform code of law irrespective of caste, creed, colour or religion.

(l)         Participation of workers and labourers in labour law.

(m)      Promotion of cottage industries.

(n)       Provision of maternity relief.

(o)       Education to all.

(p)       Equal justice to all.

(q)       Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.

(r)        Adequate means of livelihood to all citizens.

Ques  4.  What are the current objectives of India?

Ans -   (a)       Self sufficiency in nuclear- power.

           (b)       Availability of reliable power   supply   for farming and industries.

           (c)        Production of goods for world markets.

           (d)       Balancing growth in both public and private sector.

     (e)       Modernization  of  villages, linking  with   roads  and  provision  of  electricity  to all    villages.

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