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CHAPTER V

 

LEADERSHIP

Section 1- Motivation

Ques 1.   Define motivation?

Ans.    (a)        Motivation is the process by which one is inspired to act in the desired manner with the help of catalytic persuasion.

(b)       It is the application of will power and is expressed commonly as a desire, wish, need, preference, want or striving. 

(c)        It is an act of inspiring men to do their jobs. 

Ques 2.     What are the various means of motivation?

Ans     (a)       Integrating as far as possible the personal needs of the men with the needs of the organization.

(b)       Providing opportunity  where  practicable  for individuals  to participate  in establishing  goals  and  standards  of performance.  Such participation fosters ready acceptance of objective.           

(c)        The leader himself setting a personal example of optimum performance.  In doing everything, it is better to check up ones conduct and to act on lines laid down by sages.  You, who are a leader of men, must set the example - BHAGVAD GITA.

 

SECTION 2- DISCIPLINE AND DUTIES OF A GOOD CITIZEN

Ques 1.  Define Duty?

Ans.   Duty is a moral/legal obligation and a binding force of what is right and behaviour towards superior colleagues & subordinates.

Ques 2.   Define Discipline?

Ans  - To obey man's order as issued by rightful authority is discipline. Discipline welds together the other qualities of self control, courage, endurance, alertness, comradeship and correct behaviour at all times.

Ques 3.   Define Citizen?

Ans  - A member of a particular community who owes allegiance to the State and who enjoys protection and the rights granted by the Constitution of the country.

Ques 4.   What are the important duties of a good Citizen?

Ans  -   (a)        Primary duty is to be loyal and owe allegiance to the State.

(b)       Patriotism, Preservation of Independence of the Country.

(c)        Service before Self.

(d)         Sense of Duty.   

            (e)       Care and protection of the government property.

(f)        High Character.

(g)       A good citizen considers right of other citizens also as important as his own right.

 

SECTION 3- LEADERSHIP TRAITS

Ques 1.   What are Leadership traits?

Ans  - These area as under : -

(a)          Alertness

(b)          Bearing

(c)          Courage

(d)          Decisiveness

(e)          Dependability

(f)           Endurance

(g)          Initiative

(h)          Integrity

(i)            Judgement

(j)            Justice

(k)          Knowledge

(l)            Loyalty

(m)        Sense of humour

(n)          Tactful

(o)          Unselfishness


SECTION 4- PERSONALITY/ CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT

Ques 1.   Write measures for development of Personality?

Ans .  These are as under: -

(a)          Judgement

(b)          Mirroring

(c)          Be cheerful and nice

(d)          Be sincere and trustworthy.

(e)          Provide compelling ideas.

(f)           Conviction

(g)          Positive attitude.

(h)          Leadership skills

(i)            Communication skills

Ques 2 .  Write measures to improve character?

Ans .   These are as under: -

(a)       Courage.   

(b)       Decisiveness. 

(c)       Initiative. 

(d)       Enthusiasm.  

(e)       Loyalty.   

(f)        Justice.  

(g)       Morality.   

(h)       Sense of Duty.  

(j)        Patriotism. 

Ques 3.   List out role of NCC in personality/ character development?

Ans. These are as under: -

(a)          Drill

(b)          Interaction of cadets during camps.

(c)          Competitions

(d)          Sports and adventure activities.

 

SECTION 5- TYPES OF LEADERSHIP

(Only for SD/SW cadets)

Ques 1.   Write three ideal leadership styles?

Ans-    (a)      Autocratic

(b)          Democratic

(c)          Laissez Faire

 

SECTION 6- VALUES /  CODE OF ETHICS

(Only for SD/SW cadets)

Ques 1.   Define value.

Ans     - Value is a standard behaviour of an individual in society.

Ques 2.  Define Ethics.

Ans.   Ethics is a set of moral principles that governs a person's behaviour in society.

Ques 3.    List out important values of a good & successful leader?

Ans  - These are as under : -

(a)       Honesty         - not to steal, cheat or lie.

            (b)       Integrity         - uprightness.

            (c)       Purity              - no  duplicity, insincerity  in  thought,  word  or deed.

(d)       Discipline       - behaviour  according  to  essential   rules  and  norms

   which  is  self-imposed.

(e)       Selflessness  - unselfishness, rise above  selfish  or self-centered

individualism, self-sacrifice.

(f)        Loyalty          - true, faithful  to  duty,  love  or  obligation  to  person/ 

institution,  faithful in  allegiance  to  the  nation or

mother  country.

(g)       Fairness        - being  impartial, give right  decision.

(h)       Equality         - treat everyone equally.

(j)         Trust              - firm  belief  in  the  reliability, ability, strength of  some

  one or something.

(k)        Support         - give  help, encouragement, or approval.

(l)         Respect        - a feeling  of  admiration for  someone because of  their 

  qualities.

 

SECTION 7- PERCEPTION

(Only for SD/SW cadets)

Ques 1.  Define Perception?

Ans.  Perception is a complicated interaction of selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli.

Ques 2.   Define two elements of perception?

Ans  - (a)        Perception is a process of selection or screening which prevents us from processing irrelevant or disruptive information and

           (b)       There is organisation of stimuli implying that the information that is processed has to be ordered and classified in some logical manner which permits us to assign meaning to the stimuli situations. 

Ques 3.   What are the External attention factors of perceptual selection?

Ans.     (a)       Intensity

(b)          Size

(c)          Contrast

(d)          Repetition

(e)          Motion

(f)           Novelty and familiarity

 

SECTION 8- COMMUNICATION INCLUDING INTER-PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

(Only for SD/SW cadets)

Ques 1.  Define communication?

Ans -   (a)       Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, options, emotions by two or more persons or

(b)       Communication is an intercourse by words, letter, symbols or messages and a way that one member shares meaning and understanding with another.

Ques 2.   Write down principles of effective communication.

Ans.  These are as under : -

(a)       Clarity of Objective

(b)       Proper Messenger.  

(c)       Knowledge of Communicatee. 

(d)       Selection of Media / Method

(e)       Removal of Barriers:  

(f)        Feedback.  

Ques 3. What are the advantages & disadvantages of Face-to-Face interpersonal communication?

Ans      Advantages

(a)       Once contact is made with audience, there is no time lag between the transmission of a message and its reception.

(b)       It gives control to the speaker. In a personal contact one has much more command over the receiver's attention. The listener at least has to pretend to pay attention. In such cases message ought to be clear and interesting enough to capture the attention of the audience.

(c)        It permits instantaneous feedback.  Because of the tremendous amount of feedback available in face-to-face communication, it has also been termed the richest kind of communication channel.

(d)       A final advantage of face-to-face interaction is its personal quality.   When a personal meeting goes well, the relationship that communication develops can help solve problems that might have been more difficult when handled from a distance.  Personal meetings are especially important in some cultures, where failure to visit someone in person is an insult.

Drawbacks

(a)       It is difficult to arrange personal meetings.  Even when communicator is in the same building, scheduling a meeting can be difficult and frustrating.

(b)       A personal encounter might also be unproductive if the contact antagonizes one or more of the participants.

Ques 4.    What are the guidelines for effective listening?

Ans.   These are as under: -

(a)       A good listener shows deep interest in the speaker by looking at him.  He observes the gestures, facial expressions and postures of the speaker.

(b)       While listening exercise mental discipline over yourself.  Only if you concentrate properly can you be a good listener.

(c)        Do not allow yourself to be distracted by noise or entering of late comers.

(d)       Do not distract the speaker.

(e)       Be present in time at the venue. It enables to settle yourself physically and mentally before the speech starts.

(f)        Take the efforts to listen not only to the words but also to the feelings being conveyed   by the speaker.

(g)       Don't hesitate to ask the questions to clarify meaning of statements made by the speaker.

(h)       Let your listening always be sympathetic, alert and active.  Try to understand the speaker's point of view.

(j)         Follow the trend of discussion so as to make the proper response when your turn comes.

(k)        Use the extra time you get as listener to analyse and evaluate the speech.

(l)         Avoid thinking too much about a part that has already been covered by the                     speaker as this will prevent you from paying attention to the next argument.

(m)      Don't take too many notes because you will get little time to analyse and evaluate   the message or speech.

(n)       Avoid emotional barriers which prevent your from listening effectively.

Ques 5.   What are the advantages of good listening?

Ans.   These are as under: -

(a)       It improves the quality of communication and makes people respect the                             view point of others.

(b)     Good listening leads to positive attitudes, cordial relations and better                                  participation.

(c)        It provides valuable information for the purpose of decision making.

(d)          Good listening enables to find the solutions to the complex problems.

 

SECTION 11-IMPORTANCE OF GROUP/TEAM WORK

(Only for SD/SW cadets)

Ques 1.  What are the various types of Groups?

Ans - Classification of group according to evolutions of primary goals is an given below:-

(a)       Friendship Group.  It evolves informally to meet its members' personal security, esteem and belonging needs.

(b)       Task Group.  It is created by the management to accomplish certain organization goals. Task group can further be classified as under:-

(i)         Formal Groups.  They are established by an organization to facilitate the achievement of the organization goals.

(ii)        Informal Group.   It is one that develops out of the day-to-day activities, interactions and sentiments of the members for the purpose of meeting their social needs.

(iii)       Effective Group.  An effective group is one which has the following characteristics:-

(aa)        Its members know why the group exists; they have shared goals.

(ab)        Its members support agreed upon guidelines and  procedures for making decisions.

(ac)        Its members communicate freely among themselves.

(ad)        Its members have learned to receive help from one another and to give help to one another.

(ae)        Its members have learned to deal with conflict within the group.

(af)         Its members have learned to diagnose individual and group processes and improve their own and the group's functioning.

Ques 2.   What are the characteristics of a mature Group?

Ans -   (a)       An increasing ability to be self directed (not dependent on the leader).

            (b)       An increased tolerance that progress takes time.

(c)        An increasing sensitivity to their own feelings and those of others.

(d)       Improvement in the ability to withstand tension, frustration and disagreement.

(e)       A perception of the common denominators, which bind the group as well as areas of individual difference.

(f)       A better ability to anticipate realistic results of behavior  to channel emotions into more socially acceptable ways of expressing these emotions.

(g)      An increased ability to change plans and methods as new situations develop.

(h)      A decrease in  time needed to recover from  threatening group situations.  Peaks  and  valleys of emotional group crises become less personal.

(j)    Increased efficiency in locating problems, engaging in problem solving and providing help to individuals as needed.

(k)        A willingness to face one`s own responsibilities and to assist others when help is needed.

            (l)         An acceptance of the right of the other person to be different.

Ques 3.   What are various types of teams?

Ans  -   (a)        Functional Teams

(b)       Problem Solving Teams.

(c)        Cross - Functional Teams. 

(d)       Self - Managed Teams. 

Ques 4.   What are the characteristics of a Team?

Ans -   (a)       Illusion of invulnerability.

            (b)       Collective rationalization.

            (c)        Unquestioned belief.

            (d)       Stereotypical views.

            (e)       Direct pressure.

            (f)        Self censorship.

(g)       Shared illusion of unanimity.

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