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FIELD ENGINEERING

SECTION-1

INTRODUCTION TO FIELD ENGINEERING

Ques 1- Define Field engineering?

Ans - Field engineering is the study of field fortification, obstacle planning including minefields, mine warfare, and stores and equipment relating to the same.

Ques 2.   What are the various tasks performed by Field Engineers?

Ans -    (a) Laying of mine fields.

(b) Breaching of mine fields.

(c) Construction of field defences.

(d) Construction of tracks in mountains.

(e) Construction / maintenance of border roads.

(f) Water supply to troops in the field, especially in deserts.

(g) Construction of Helipads where-ever required.

(h) In Counter Insurgency Operation:-

                      (i) Detection, neutralisation and removal of IEDs and explosives.

                      (ii) Road opening etc for all type of traffic.

(j) Maintenance of essential services.

SECTION-2

KNOTS AND LASHINGS

Ques 1 - What is the purpose of Knots?

Ans - Knots, bends and hitches are used to join two lashings together, to form a loop in a lashing, to make a stop on a lashing or to secure a lashing to a spar, or to make a hook.

Ques 2.  What is the characteristics of Knots?

Ans -    (a) Knot should be strong so that it does not open due to pull and pressure.

(b) Knot should be in conformity to work and simple to use.

(c) Knots should be opened easily.

Ques 3.  What are the various types of lashes?

Ans -    (a) Square Lashes

(b) Diagonal lashes

(c) Parallel lashes

SECTION-3

TYPES OF MINES

Ques 1.   What is mine?

Ans - A mine is a weapon to be used with cunning and with the constant aim of catching the enemy unawares. 

Ques 2- What are the various types of mines?

Ans       (a) Anti Tank Mines. Mines designed primarily against tanks are called anti tank mines.

(b) Anti Personnel Mines. Mines designed primarily against personnel are called anti personnel mines. They are further classified as follows:-

        (aa) Blast type.

        (ab) Fragmentation type.

(c) Toxic Chemical Mines. Mines used to contaminate areas. The toxic agent of each mine is dispersed by burster charges.

SECTION-4

TYPES OF OBSTACLES

Ques 1.  What is the purpose of obstacle?

Ans -    (a) Delaying and disorganizing him under fire.

(b) Restricting his power of manoeuvre thereby canalizing him into a pre-selected killing ground.

(c) Disorganizing his plan of attack.

(d) Making him waste time, labour and equipment in forcing a passage.

(e) Denying him the opportunity of achieving surprise.

(f) Lowering his morale.

Ques 2. What are essential characteristics of obstacles?

Ans - (a) Must be strong and of sufficient depth to impose maximum delay to enemy.

         (b) Sited to fit in with coordinated plan; covered by fire and concealed to achieve surprise.

         (c) Constructed outside the hand grenade range.

         (d) It must not

(i) Obscure the fire or observation of the defender,

(ii) Afford cover to enemy ,

(iii) Reveal the exact position of the defence,

(iv) Hinder the mobility of the defender

(v) Permit the enemy reconnaissance without interference by the defender.

Ques 3. What are the various types of infantry obstacles?

Ans - (a) Artificial Obstacles.

                         (i) Wire obstacles.

(ii) Anti-personnel minefields.

                         (iii) Thorn fences.

                         (iv) Panji fields.

                         (v) Walls.

                         (vi) Ditches with or without water.

             (b) Natural Obstacles.

                         (i) Marshes.

                         (ii) Rivers, nullahs and canals.

                         (iii) Unscalabe cliffs, escarpments and steep slopes.

                         (iv) Dense growth like tea or rhodendrous bushes.

Ques 4. What are the various types of vehicles and anti tank obstacles?

Ans - (a) Anti-tank Minefields. These are dealt with in details in section dealing with 'Types and Laying of Minefields'.

          (b) Physical Obstacles.

(i) Steep Slopes. Slopes of 50 degrees can stop tanks under normal conditions. 

If the slopes are of loose slippery surface, even lesser angel is sufficient. However the slopes must be of sufficient length.

(ii) Vertical Steps. A vertical step of 6 feet can be an effective obstacle against all types of tanks.

(iii) Ditches. A ditch, which is sufficiently wide and deep to make the nose of the tank tilt down so much that it loses hold on the ground, is an effective obstacle.

(iv) Water. For a river or canal to be an obstacle against tanks it must have depth more than tanks heights and length more than ¾ of tanks length.

 SECTION-5

METHOD OF WATER CROSSING

Ques 1. What are the various kinds of improvised water crossing equipment?

Ans -    (a) Groundsheet Water Belt.

            (b) Tin Float.      

            (c) Two Men's Equipment and Groundsheet. 

            (d) Bamboo Pole

            (e) Chattis Water Wings

            (f) Water Bottle Belt     

            (g) Drum Rafts. 

(h) Bundle of Logs

(j) Bamboo Mat Raft

(k) Hay Bundle Raft

(l) Charpoy Raft

SECTION-6

USE OF EXPLOSIVES AND IMPROVISED

EXPLOSIVE DEVICE (IED)

Ques 1.  What are the main components of IED (improvised explosive device)?

Ans - (a) Explosive.

         (b) Detonator.

         (c) Initiating Mechanism.

         (d) Power Source.

Ques 2, Whre all the IED can be planted?

Ans - (a) Public areas (railway stations, bus stands and airports).

         (b) Public Transport (bus, train, aero plane and ship).

         (c) Public Utilities (library, offices and Industries).

         (d) Military Installations (ammunition dump, fuel oil and lubrication dump and supply depot).

         (e) VIP vehicle.  

         (f) Along road / tracks, where VIP / security forces are likely to move.

         (g) Places where large congregations are likely to take place.

         (h) Places of religious worship.

         (j) Important buildings e.g. Schools, colleges, hospitals and business centre, government   

          offices etc.

         (k) Important bridges.

         (l) Historical monuments.

Ques 3 - What are the indications of IED?

Ans -    (a) Any unattended item.

(b) Unclaimed attractive items like cell phones, transistor, tape recorder etc.

(c) Any object out of place.

(d) Loose electric wire.

(e) Any antenna wire.

            (f) Freshly dug earth.

            (g) Dry grass / leaves, cow dung / garbage etc for camouflage.  

(h) Broken road or freshly repaired road.

(j) Fresh plaster or painting.

Ques 4 - What are the Do's with IED?

Ans -   (a) Remain away from suspected object.

(b) Be aware of booby traps.

(c ) Warn the people about the suspected objects.

(d) Inform police / bomb disposal squad.

            (e) Help police in crowd management and traffic control.

            (f) Evacuate local population to a safe place.

Ques 5 - What are the Dont's with IED?

Ans -    (a) Do not believe unattended object to be safe.

            (b) Do not handle suspected object.

(c) Do not panic on detection of IED.

            (d) Do not think only one IED has been placed.

            (e) Do not immerse suspected object in water.

            (f) Do not spread rumours.

            (g) Do not bunch up near the suspected object.

            (h) Do not cut any wire.

            (j) Do not make loud sounds near the IED.

            (k) Do not light a fire near IED.

            (l) Do not be in a hurry and try to become a dead hero.

 SECTION-7

CAMOUFLAGE AND CONCEALMENT

Ques 1.  What is the aim of camouflage?

Ans - It is the concealment of man and equipment from enemy's direct and indirect observation.

Ques 2 - What are the various factors which aids recognition?

Ans -    (a) Shape

(b) Shadow

(c) Silhouette

(d) Surface

(e) Spacing

(f) Movement

(g) Shine

(h) Position

(i) Contrast

(j) Noise, sound and activity.

Ques 3 - What are the fundamental ways of concealing activities?

Ans - Thse are as uder:-

(a) Hiding. It is complete concealment of an object by placing a screen between the object and the observers.

(b) Blending. It is the arrangement of camouflage materials on, over and around the object so that it appears to be part of the surroundings. The aim is to prevent detection of the object by a change in natural appearance of the position.

(c) Deceiving. Deceiving simulates an object or disguises it so that it appears to be different.   

SECTION-8

TYPES OF MINE FIELDS

Ques 1 - What are the main functions of mine fields?

Ans       (a) Delay and disorganize enemy attack and discourage his entering into our defended 

             positions.

(b) Force the attacker to select certain approaches or routes thereby luring him into a place where he can be killed.

(c) Separate infantry from tanks.

(d) Deny close observation of main defences.

Ques 2 - What are the type of mine fields as per technical considerations?

Ans -   (a) Anti Personnel. Containing only anti personnel mines and providing protection only against an infantry attack.

(b) Anti Tank. Containing only anti tank mines and providing protection only against an armoured attack.

(c) Mixed. Containing both anti tank and anti personnel mines and providing protection against both infantry and armoured attack.

Ques 3.   What are the tactical classification of the mine fields?

Ans -    (a) Protective.

(b) Defensive.

(c) Tactical.

(e) Nuisance.

(f) Dummy.

SECTION-9

FIELD DEFENCES

Ques 1.  What points should be borne in mind while constructing field defences?

Ans -   (a) Fire trenches should be close enough for the section commanders orders to be heard during battle.

(b) Reverse slopes are a great aid to concealment and surprise, provided the field of fire is sufficient.

(c) With the increasing efficiency of airburst missiles overhead protection is important but needs good concealment and sound construction.     

(d) In open country, crawl trenches may have to be dug to allow movement between fire trenches.      

Ques 2.   What are the various field fortifications?

Ans -    (a) Bunker

            (b) Communication Trench.

(c) Fire Trench.

(d) Pill Box.

(e) Shelter Trench

(f) Slit Trench

(g) Weapon Pit

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