CIVIL AFFAIRS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Civil Defence organisation and its Duties
Ques 1 -Define civil defence?
Ans - It is a measure adopted by the civilian population, Government, local self bodies and voluntary organisation etc, during the war to minimize the effects of enemy action on men and material. It is the defence of the citizens by the citizens.
Ques 2. What is the organisation of civil defence at District level?
Ans - District Magistrate is controller along with in charge for various civil defence services like Civil Surgeon, Superintendent of Police, PWD Engineer, Publicity officer etc.
Ques 3 - Write various kinds of civil defence services?
Ans - (a) Headquarters Service
(b) Warden's Service
(c) Fire Fighting Service
(d) Casualty Services
(e) Communication Services
(f) Training Services
(g) Rescue Services
(h) Welfare Services
(j) Depot and Transport Services
(k) Salvage Service.
(l) Corpse Disposal Service
(m) Supply Service
Types of emergencies and natural disasters
Ques 1 -Define disaster?
Ans - Disaster denotes any odd event natural or man made which brings about immense misery to a region and it becomes difficult to cope up with the situation through local resources. There are two types of disasters i.e. Natural and Man made.
Ques 2 - What are the natural disasters?
(a) Wind Related - Storm, Cyclone, Tornado, Storm surge and Tidal waves.
(b) Water Related - Flood, Cloudburst, Flash flood, Excessive rains and
(c) Earth Related - Earthquake, Tsunamis, Avalanches, Landslides and Volcanic eruptions.
Ques 3. What are the man made disaters?
Ans (a) Accidents. Road, Rail, Air, Sea and Building collapse.
(b) Industrial Mishaps. Gas Leak, explosion, sabotage and safety breach.
(c) Fire. Building, Coal and Oil.
(e) Contamination/Poisoning. Food, water, illicit-liquor and epidemics.
(f) Terrorists Activities.
(g) Ecological. Pollution (air, water, noise), soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, global warming, sea level rise, toxic wastes and nuclear accidents.
(h) Warfare. Conventional, chemical and nuclear.
Ques 4 - Describe Earth quack, Tsunami, Draught and Flood.
Ans (a) Earthquake. Layers of rock make up the earth's surface. Rocks do not bend or break easily. Tension caused by movement of Earth's plates, build up over the years until the rocks can take the strain no longer. Suddenly they crack and shift, sending out shock waves, and reducing anything built on the surface to rubble. This is what we call an earthquake. The shock of the initial earthquake may be followed by a series of aftershocks over the next few days. These fade as the rocks settle down into their new positions.
(b) Tsunamis. This giant wave is caused by an undersea earthquake. Vibrations rush through the ocean at hundreds of kilometers an hour. When they reach shallow waters they slow down and build up into vast waves, at times 76m (250 ft) tall. The tsunami crashes onto the shore, sweeping away anything in its way.
(c) Drought. If, over about two weeks, there is less than 0.2 mm (1/100in) of precipitation, there is said to be a drought. Without reservoirs, there is not enough water for people and crops. Some places have extreme drought which lasts for many years. Droughts have disastrous and long term impact on the economy and can affect a large segment of the society which may last for months and in some cases several years. Generally, drought situation may be defined as a temporary reduction in water or moisture availability significantly below the normal or expected amount for a specific period. Drought is a slow onset phenomenon.
(d) Flood. It can arise from abnormally heavy precipitation, dam failures, rapid snow melting, river blockages or even burst water mains. It is usually sudden in onset. Types of floods can further be classified into Inland and Coastal floods. Major floods result in physical damage, deaths and injuries, problems in drinking water supply and food shortages and displacement of population.
Ques 1 -What are the three elements for fire?
Ans - (a) Oxygen.
(b) Sufficient heat to raise the temperature of fuel to its burning point or ignition temperature.
(c) Combustible or burnable material (Solid, Liquid or Gas).
Ques 2. What are the modes of spread of fire?
Ans - (a) Conduction. Transfer of heat by the intermediary material. Many materials which will not burn easily particularly metals are good conductors for transmitting heat. These materials when heated by the fire may ignite other combustible material with which these may be in contact.
(b) Convection. Transfer of heat through gases or smoke, Gases tend to rise until ceiling or roof is reached after which they spread sideways in a mushroom manner and ignite combustible materials located at higher levels than the original fire e.g. fire spreading onto top floor. The best method to check this is to remove or cool the combustible materials.
(c) Radiation. Radiation means transfer of heat from the source of fire, without heating the midway media e.g. air. The effect of radiation can be countered by forming a water curtain between the fire and the object to be protected or the object may be removed or cooled.
(d) Direct Burning. This phenomenon is self-explanatory. Direct burning is often due to a combination of the above two or three factors viz, conduction, convection and radiation.
Ques 3. What are the various categories of fire fighting appliances?
Ans (a) Fire Extinguishers.
(b) Stirrup Pumps.
(c) Buckets/Ghee Tin (Water /sand containers)
(d) Fire Beaters and Hooks.
Essential services and their Maintenance
Ques 1 -What are the essential services?
Ans (a) Postal, telegraph or telephone service.
(b) Railways, road, air and sea transport service for the carriage of passengers or goods.
(c) Running of ports of (b) above.
(d) Provision of water, electricity and sanitation.
(e) Medical services and essential supplies.
(f) Production and supply of essential commodities.
(g) Running of mint and security presses.
Ques 2. What is the role of NCC cadets for maintaining essential services?
Ans (a) Telephone exchange as operators.
(b) Hospitals- as nurses and as links between doctors, nurses, patients and hospital technicians. They could also help in maintaining hospital discipline and security.
(c) First Aid Centres- establish and run these centres.
(d) Assist civil defence wardens in carrying out their duties.
(e) Carry out neighbourhood campaigns by motivating people to create self assistance groups.
(f) Counteract gossip and rumours to restore the morale of the people.
(g) Assist the civil authorities whenever feasible and to the best of ability. Some of the areas where cadets can help are:-
(i) Search for and rescue trapped people.
(ii) Salvage destroyed structures and property.
(iii) Distribution of relief material to the affected population for their temporary sustenance.
(iv) Coordinate the relief flow from out-side and ensure maximum coverage of territory in provision of relief stores, food and water avoiding wastage and duplication of work in the same area.
(v) Repair and restore essential services to enable rescue and relief work and for normalization of activities.
SECTION - 5
(Only for JD/JW Cadets)
Ques 1 -What are the protective measure against the air attack?
Ans (a) In the Trenches. The size of these trenches could be 8' to 10' long. 2' to 3 ' wide and 4' to 6' deep. Eight to ten feet long units are dug in a zig-zag manner with an angle of 80 degrees to 100 degrees between each leg.
(b) In the Open. Lie on the ground with face downward resting on elbows with hands clasped behind the head so that chest is not in contact with the ground. Put a rolled handkerchief in between teeth.
(c) In a Vehicle. Park the vehicle in a side lane leaving the ignition key in its place and take cover in the open.
(d) Inside the Building. Be near the inside wall of the building. Places below staircases, archways, doorways, corners and under the cots are safer.
(e) In a Train. Turn off the lights and crawl under seats. On no account look outside the windows.
(f) In the Cinema. Remain seated on your seats.
(g) In a Bullock Cart or
(h) Protection of Doors and Windows. Doors and windows can be screened by walls and sand bags.
Ques 2. What the various methods of rescue?
Ans (a) Methods Suitable for One Rescuer. Human Crutch, Pick-a-back (reverse), Fireman's lift. Rescue crawl, Removal downstairs, Bowline drag and Toe drag.
(b) Methods Suitable for More than One Rescuer. Two handed seat, Three handed seat, Fourhanded seat, Fore and Aft method, Two-man Human Crutch, Clothes lift, Blanket lift.
(c) Improvised Stretcher. Blankets, sheets or rugs salvaged from the site can be converted into improvised stretchers by using small poles, broom handles etc.
SECTION - 6
Role of NCC during Natural Hazards
(Only for JD/JW Cadets)
Ques 1 -What are the role of NCC cadets during natural disasters?
Ans (a) Traffic Management under supervision.
(b) Search and Rescue.
(c) First Aid and evacuation of rescued people.
(d) Helping in setting up and administration of Relief Camps.
(e) Collection, loading and dispatch of medical aid, material, food and other articles of relief.
(f) Conduct of cultural and recreational activities for victims to boost their morale at later / rehabilitation stages.
Ques 2 - What are the various points for consideration while employing NCC cadets for disaster management?
Ans (a) JD/JW cadets are young and may not be considered suitable for such operations. SW cadets may be used for softer jobs like providing medical assistance or manning exchanges during strikes of nurses or telephone operators. Only SD cadets may be found suitable for helping in natural calamities like earthquakes, land-slides and floods.
(b) Suitable bonds would be required to be obtained from parents of cadets.
(c) Cadets are never readily available to be mustered at short notice because they are busy with their studies at schools/colleges. It is only during camps that the cadets are available and can be launched at short notice.
(d) Cadets are not adequately trained for specialized tasks related to Disaster Management. Suitable training must be given to them during institutional training.
(e) Adequate allowances would require to be allocated for the cadets taking part in these activities.
(f) Joint schemes with the State Disaster Relief machinery would be required to be made in which NCC cadets may be incorporated.
(g) Adequate signal equipment and other disaster relief equipment would be required to be authorised to NCC to carry out necessary training.
(h) NCC cadets would have to carry out rehearsals along with the Army, Police, Fire Fighting forces and others in the State.
SECTION - 7
Traffic Control in Disasters Management under Police Supervision
(Only for SD/SW cadets)
Ques 1 - What are the responsibilities of Traffic Police and where all cadets can be employed for disaster management?
Ans - (a) Immediate Action. On receipt of the information about any Disaster taking place, Dy SP concerned shall rush to the spot immediately with his quick reaction team equipped with adequate communication equipment, rescue material, protective gear, warning signs and contact numbers; assess the situation and inform the SSP about the situation SSP should arrange for additional force from local resources. Some cadets can form part of the group which goes for the immediate action.
(b) Initial Law and Order. Local traffic police shall rush to the spot with ropes, search lights and other items for maintaining law and order. Cadets can be incorporated with the local police personals.
(c) Cordoning. The entire affected area shall be cordoned off and no collection of crowd be allowed there. Cadets can be used to cordon off effected areas.
(d) Casualty Management. The Traffic Police plays an important role in traffic control and guidance in the chain of evacuation of casualties as injured persons shall be evacuated to the nearby hospital by the PCR vans, ambulances and other modes of conveyance. Cadets can accompany the casualty or be employed as points man or liaison officer at hospitals..
(e) Traffic Flow. No traffic shall be allowed to pass through the affected areas and necessary diversion shall be made accordingly. Diversion points can be manned by cadets in co-ordination with traffic police.
(f) Emergency Vehicle. The local traffic police shall ensure clear passage for emergency vehicles until traffic arrangements are made. Cadets can be employed to check and ensure that only emergency vehicles are permitted to the right of way.
(g) Rescue Services. Help shall be provided to the rescue services and volunteers in all possible manner. This will include guiding the fire tenders, ambulances etc to the place of incident through a clear route. Cadets can be cooperated with rescue services and volunteers to guide and escorting duties.
(h) Adequate Reserve. Adequate force be kept at the scene of occurrence for traffic control. Cadets can form part of the reserve forces to aid traffic police.
(j) Maint of Records of Incidents. The entire scene of incident must be video graphed as early as possible with a view to reconstruct the scene of occurrence, during the course of investigation. Cadets can be employed to videograph and carryout tasks in maintaining of records of incidents.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT DURING FLOOD/CYCLONE
(Only for SD/SW cadets)
Ques -1 - What is the assistance required during flood/cyclone?
Ans (a) Flood/Cyclone Warning.
(b) Shelter Management.
(c) Evacuation & Rescue.
(d) First aid & Medical.
(g) Carcass Disposal.
(h) Patrolling and Liaison
Ques 2. What is the affective method to contact NCC cadets to be available for any assistance during calamities?
Ans (a) Radio / TV.
(b) Contact telephone numbers.
(c) Jeep with loudhailer.
(d) By word of mouth.
Ques 3 - Describe as to how the assistance will be provided during any flood/cyclone by NCC cadets?
Ans - All NCC cadets, both boys and girls, junior and senior along with motivated and responsible men, women and youth volunteers can implement and supervise the activities of the contingency plan. Each group will have distinct activities to carry out before, during and after the flood/cyclone. NCC cadets of each Gp will be trained in various aspects as under: -
(a) Relief Group. The member of the group collect and distribute relief such as food supply, cloth, kerosene, diesel, utensils etc and coordinate all the relief requirement of the other action groups. Both the boy and girl cadets have to be capable of interacting with the local authorities to ensure adequate supplies reach the affected areas in time.
(b) Warning Group. Members of this group could be cadets from JD. They have to be trained to understand radio warning and act fast to spread the warning throughout the area of responsibility. Some members should have a radio before the flood/cyclone. This group has to monitor weather forecast through wireless radio, TV, transportation and communication aids are needed to pass on warning.
(c) Shelter Management Group. The members of this group can have maximum cadets from JW/SW. They will be at the shelter and safe houses looking after the evacuees' food, water and medication requirements. This group can also coordinate with the government authorities to ensure that health and nutrition facilities are available for the extra vulnerable groups, like women and children.
(d) Evacuation and Rescue Groups. The members of this group have to be physically strong (both SD and SW), and should be trained in basic evacuation and rescue method. The members of this group should coordinate with state government to get facilities for rescue and evacuation in terms of rescue training. Rescue infrastructure and equipment.
(e) First Aid Medical Groups. There should be equal number of JD/SD and JW/SW cadets in this group. Those with some knowledge of nursing will be preferable. The members will have to go through intensive training and drills for first aid medical reasonability.
(f) Sanitation Groups. This group can consist of girl and boy cadets, who will look after the sanitation responsibilities both at the shelter as well as outdoors.
(g) Carcass Disposal Groups. Rotting and undisputed carcasses create unhygienic conditions and have to be disposed off immediately. Their disposal becomes an extremely important task. The members of this group have to be psychotically and physically able to carry out this task and should have been medically protected. If possible the Civil Defence Volunteers, members from the NSS/boys Scouts can be included in this group.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT DURING EARTHQUAKE
(Only for SD/SW cadets)
Ques 1. What is likely to be the impact of earthquakes?
Ans - (a) Loss of Life.
(c) Damage to or destruction of property including crops.
(d) Disruption of production.
(e) Disruption of lifestyle.
(f) Loss of livelihood.
(g) Disruption to essential services.
(h) Damage to national infrastructure and disruption to administrative and organisational systems.
(j) Sociological and psychological after-effects.
Ques 2. What are the problem areas which need particular attention during relief operations?
Ans (a) Severe and extensive damage, creating the need for urgent counter
measures especially search and rescue and medical assistance.
(b) Difficulty of access and movement.
(c) Widespread loss of or damage to infrastructure, essential services and life support systems.
(d) Recovery requirements (restoration and rebuilding) may be life extensive and costly.
(e) Occurrence of earthquake in areas where such events are rather rare may cause problems due to lack of public awareness.
Ques 3. What are the important points to be kept in mind by residents of quake prone area?
Ans - (a) Keep in mind that most problems from a severe earthquake result from falling objects and debris (partial building collapse, ceiling plaster, light fixtures etc) and not from ground movement.
(b) Shelves for bookcases etc should be fixed to the walls. Remove heavy objects from shelves above head level. Do not hang plants in heavy pots that could swing free of hooks. Bookcases, cabinets or wall decorations can topple over and fall.
(c) Locate beds away from the windows and heavy objects that could fall. Do not hang mirrors or picture frames over beds.
(d) Secure appliances that could move causing rupture of gas or electrical lines. Know location of master switches and shut-of valves.
(e) Make sure the overhead lighting fixtures are well secured to the ceiling and move heavy unstable objects away from exit routes.
(f) Replace glass bottles with plastic containers or move them to the lowest shelves.
(g) Be aware that with a severe earthquake, all services such as electricity/water will probably be down. Emergency services may be extremely limited for a few days.
(h) Emergency stores like water, long lasting ready to eat food, first aid kit medicines tools, portable radio, flash light, batteries, blankets, warm jackets fire extinguisher and telephone/mobile etc be kept in a secure place at your residence or in your car.
SETTING UP RELIEF CAMP DURING
(Only for SD/SW cadets)
Ques 1 - What are the basic considerations for setting up of relief camp for disaster management?
Ans. Following points are relevant for proper siting of relief camp: -
(a) Social Needs. In most circumstances the choice will be limited and any land meeting even minimum standards may be scarce. However the site selected must meet the basic needs of the society.
(b) Water. The single most important site selection criteria are the availability of an adequate amount of water on a year-round basis. The watershed of the area may be a consideration.
(c) Open Space. The site must provide a sufficient amount of usable space for the displaced population. Since there is always the possibility that more people may arrive, the site should be large enough to allow for major expansion.
(d) Accessibility. The site must be accessible by vehicles and close to communication links, sources of supplies and services such as food, cooking fuel, shelter material, and national community services.
(e) Environment. The area should be free of major environmental health hazards, potential diseases and harmful insects such as mosquito and insects/ fly.
(f) Soil and Ground Cover. The soil should allow for water absorption and the retention of human waste. Rocky or impermeable sites should be avoided.
(g) Land Rights. The land should be exempt from ownership rights or grazing and other uses by local population.
(h) Transit Centre. There may be a need to set up a reception or transit centre, through which displaced people pass on the way to a long-term settlement site
ASSISTANCE IN REMOVAL OF DEBRIS
(Only for SD/SW cadets)
Ques 1 - What should be the ideal priority for removal of debris?
Ans (a) Priority I. To remove debris that may damage entry and exit for emergency services, public health and safety.
(b) Priority II. To remove debris that poses a threat to life and safety, e.g. damage to public structures, bridges and road ways.
(c) Priority III. To remove debris that cause hindrance to the process of rehabilitation of disaster affected area.
(d) Priority IV. To remove debris on private property.
Ques 2 - What is the likely role of NCC cadets for removal of debris?
Ans - NCC Cadets could be employed as under : -
(a) Spread public awareness about task in hand to enhance participation.
(b) Remove debris in conjunction with civil services.
(c) For identification of disposal areas and as guides.
(d) Reporting/controlling of illegal dumping activity.
COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF AID MATERIAL
(Only for SD/SW cadets)
Ques 1. What are the various types of Aid materials required during management of disasters?
Ans - Aid material can be divided into following categories: -
(a) Personal Clothing and bedding Items.
(b) Medical and Life Saving Equipment
(c) Housing and Shelters.
(e) Debris Clearing Equipment.
(f) Animals and Live Stock.
(g) Disposal of the Dead.
(j) Food, Water and Cooking Facilities.
(k) Electricity and Lighting Facilities.
Ques 2. what is the source of supply of aid material?
Ans - (a) Central Government Organisations including Defence Services.
(b) State Government Organisations.
(c) Non Government Organisations (NGOs).
(d) Educational Institutions.
(e) Social Welfare Organisations.
(f) Resident Welfare Organisations.
(g) Red Cross.
(h) International Organisations like WHO etc.
Ques 3 - What is the role of NCC cadets for collection of aid material?
Ans (a) Cadets can help at the time of collection and help in maintaining records.
(b) Help in the sifting of articles and bulk breaking and packaging.
(c) Help in dispatch of items by various means.
(d) NCC can establish their own collection and distribution centres as they are closely associated with schools and colleges all over the country and even in the remotest areas of our country. These can be opened at unit/ group level.
(e) NCC is working and coordinating with government at the central and also at the state and district level and thus by their disposition they are ideally suited for a parallel net work with other organisations.
Ques 4 - What is the role of NCC cadets for distribution of aid material?
Ans - (a) Can be co-opted with the PDS system.
(b) Work along with NGOs or other organisations.
(c) Work independently in the chain of NCC collection and distribution system.
(d) Work along with Defence Forces who are major contributors in crisis management.
(e) Operate and man various posts established for escorting and guiding delivery agents with adequate signal communications.
(Only for SD/SW cadets)
Ques 1. What are various methods of communications?
Ans - (a) Messengers.
(b) Telephones including Cell phones.
(c) Two-way radio (VHF).
(d) Field Telephone.
(e) Signal transmission through propagation of waves as follows:-
(i) Ground Wave. Long and Medium waves range upto 30 Kms.
(ii) Space Wave. VHF and UHF waves range upto 50Kms.
(iii) Sky Wave. HF waves making use of ionosphere layer existing upto a height of 150-200 Kms from the surface of the earth. Range from 100 Kms to 1000 Kms.
(iv) Tropospheric Scatter. For forward propagation height range upto 8-10 Kms from the surface of the earth.
(g) Dial-up modems (Internet including e-mail and Fax).
(h) Local Area Networks (LANs).